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Jana, B. B. and Chakrabarti, R. 1993. The effect of management protocols of juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) culture on life history responses of zooplankton food source Moina micrura (Kurz.). Aquaculture 110: 285-300.

Three systems of carp (Cyprinus carpio) culture (live food system, manured system, and control system) were used to examine environmentally dependent life history characteristics of zooplankton, Moina micrura. Twelve culture tubes with one neonate of M. micrura per tube and covered by nylon bolting cloth of 75 µm mesh size were suspended in situ in each culture system. Each culture tube was examined daily to evaluate life history patterns. Time to first reproduction ranged from 4 to 7 days in the control and manured systems and 3 to 5 days in the live food system. Mean longevity, net reproductive rate, average generation time, as well as total offspring production per female, were distinctly higher for the live food system than for the manured or control systems. Interactions between chemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, phosphate levels and primary productivity resulting in optimal conditions was responsible for large variations in life history characteristics of M. micrura among the culture systems.


Jana, B. B. and Chakrabarti, R. 1993. Life table responses of zooplankton (Moina micrura Kurz and Daphnia carinata King) to manure application in culture system. Aquaculture117: 273-285. 

Neonates or adults of Moina micrura and Daphnia carinata were individually dispensed into culture tubes suspended in each of three replicate tanks representing treatments differing in days (2, 4, 6, 9 and 11 days) after manure (cattle manure, poultry droppings, and mustard oil cake, 1:1:1) application. The cladocerans in the culture tubes were examined daily to collect life table data. Primary productivity values and water quality parameters were determined. Time to first reproduction (A) was delayed during the early part of manure application. Mean longevity (W), total offspring production (S), reproductive life span, net reproductive rate (Ro), average generation time (Tc), intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) and finite rate (er) of the test cladocerans were reduced 2 days after application compared with 11 days after application. Differences in offspring production of test cladocerans in five different treatments were directly correlated with gross or net primary productivity values but inversely correlated with increasing levels of ammonia-N.


Kumar, S., Srivastava, A. and Chakrabarti, R. 2005. Study of digestive proteinases and proteinase inhibitors of Daphnia carinata. Aquaculture 243: 367-372.

Quantification of proteases activity and their class structure have been studied in a cladoceran, Daphnia carinata. Protease activity ranged from 0.28 to 0.55 Unit mg-1 protein min-1 with an average value of 0.42±0.06 Unit mg-1 protein min-1. Chymotrypsin activity was more than twofold higher (0.49±0.09 Unit mg-1 protein min-1) than the trypsin activity (0.21±0.02 Unit mg-1 protein min-1). Protease activity and reduction of activity in bands of samples treated with specific inhibitors were documented in photometric assay and substrate SDS–PAGE. Proteinase activity against azocasein was inhibited (91.4±1.5%) with SBTI. PMSF reduced the enzyme activity by 53.1±6.5%, and the azocasein hydrolysis was reduced up to 64.6±3.8% by the specific inhibitor of trypsin, TLCK. In the present investigation, the molecular weight of various activity bands ranged from 16.3 to 51.1 kDa. The molecular weights of several protein bands are similar to protease activity zones. The knowledge of digestive enzyme profiles of fish food organisms generated in the present study may assist in the formulation of age-specific feed.


Ashutosh Srivastava, Raja Mansingh Rathore, Rina Chakrabarti. 2006. Effects of four different doses of organic manures in the production of Ceriodaphnia cornuta. Bioresource Technology 97, 1036-1040.

Mass culture of Ceriodaphnia cornuta was done by using a mixture of organic manures: cattle manure: poultry droppings: mustard oil cake (1:1:1) at four different doses: 0.263 kg/m3 (first dose), 0.526 kg/m3 (second dose), 1.052 kg/m3 (third dose) and 2.104 kg/m3 (fourth dose). The peak of C. cornuta was found on 10th day of inoculum in first two doses and on 14th and 18th day in third and 12 fourth doses, respectively. Among these four doses, significantly (P < 0.01) higher numbers of organisms (1930/l) were found in the fourth dose followed by third (1470/l), second (1017/l) and first (733/l) doses, respectively. The number of organisms decreased faster in two lower doses than higher doses. pH ranged from 7.20 to 8.09, 7.46 to 8.01, 7.55 to 7.89 and 7.61 to 8.03 in first, second, third and fourth doses, respectively. Dissolved oxygen showed inverse relationship with the dose of manures applied and direct relationship with number of organisms. This study showed that 3.28–4.63 mg/l dissolved oxygen was optimum to obtain the bloom of C. cornuta under the present manure schedule. Maximum number of organism was found when unionized ammonia and phosphate levels ranged between 0.65–0.85 mg/l and 0.42–0.98 mg/l, respectively. The fourth dose of organic manure is optimum for the culture of C. cornuta in outdoor condition and the bloom of the live food can be obtained within 18 days of inoculum.


Srivastava, A., Hamre, K., Stoss, J., Chakrabarti, R. Tonheim, S. K. 2006. Protein content and amino acid composition of the live feed rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis): With emphasis on the water soluble fraction. Aquaculture 254: 534-543.

Rotifers are a commonly used live feed in fish larvae cultures. Two experiments were conducted on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis to investigate the protein and amino acid composition. Based on the idea that soluble protein is more digestible to fish larvae, special emphasis was put on the rotifer soluble protein fraction. In experiment 1, the nitrogen to protein factor and the amino acid composition of the rotifer crude fraction and the rotifer water soluble fraction were determined in rotifers fed with yeast, oil and live algae Chlorella (65:25:15 dry weight). The rotifer soluble protein constituted 50.6% of crude protein. The nitrogen to protein factor was different in the crude fraction and in the soluble fraction, 4.46 and 3.52, respectively. The amino acid compositions of the crude and soluble fractions, however, were almost equal, despite of small but statistical significant differences in some amino acids. In experiment 2, rotifers were grown in five different diet systems: baker's yeast with cod liver oil (3.3:1 dry weight/volume, DYO), baker's yeast with Algamac 2000™ (3.5:1 dry weight, DYA), baker's yeast with live algae Chlorella (4.1:1 dry weight, DYC), Culture Selco 3000™ (DCS); baker's yeast with cod liver oil (10:1, weight/volume) with vitamin supplement and live algae Isochrysis, DCNT. On dry weight basis, total protein content was significantly (Pb0.05) lower in rotifers from the DCNT diet system (34.4%) as compared to rotifers from the DYO diet system (41.2%). Rotifers from the other diet systems were intermediate. On wet weight basis, however, total protein content was equal. Differences, thus, probably rely on differences in lipid accumulation rather than in different protein content per individual. The absolute contents of soluble protein in rotifers were almost equal between the different diet systems, however, in terms of percent of crude protein the soluble fractions were more different, ranging from 44.28% in rotifers from the DYC diet system to 52.32% in rotifers from the DCS diet system. The rotifers from experiment 1 contained the largest free amino acid pool (5.4% of dry weight), significantly larger than in all other diet systems. The rotifers from the DCNT diet system contained a significant larger free amino acid pool (3.2% of dry weight) as compared to rotifers from the other four diet systems tested in experiment 2 (2.2–2.4% of dry weight). The amino acid compositions of the free pool and the composition of the total soluble amino acids were similar in rotifers from the different diet systems, although small but statistical significant differences were found for a few amino acids. The size of the free amino acid pool and the soluble protein fraction may have nutritional implications for fish larvae, however, the similarity in amino acid composition between the free amino acid pool.

Srivastava, A., Roy, D. and Chakrabarti, R. 2009. Phospholipids assay of Daphnia carinata using 1-D and 2-D NMR techniques. Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry 5: 117-114.

Daphnia carinata has been extensively used in larviculture. Phospholipids are extremely critical for the larval growth. Phospholipid fraction of Daphnia carinata was evaluated by NMR technique. An expanded part of proton NMR spectrum of the phospholipids fraction showed that the head group of Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was assigned as d = 4.09 [C(1)H2] and 3.76 [C(2)H2] ppm with comparable intensities of 47.74 and 48.34 for respective signal. The head group of Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was designated as d = 4.06 [C(1)H2] and 3.66 [C(2)H2] ppm with intensities of the signals 50.98 and 50.31, respectively. d = 4.25 [C(1)H2] and 3.87 [C(2)H] ppm were assigned to the head group of Phosphatidylserine (PS). The intensities of the signals at d = 4.25 and 3.87 ppm were 108.46 and 45.02, respectively. In 1H-NMR spectrum, the head group of Phosphatidylinositol (PI) was assigned as d = 4.38 [C(1)H], 4.14 [C(2)H], 3.9 [C(3)H], 4.3 [C(4)H], 3.97 [C(5)H] and 3.78 [C(6)]. The almost comparable intensities were 41.62, 36.49, 34.87, 41.34, 32.68 and 43.94, respectively. The 2-D homonuclear double quantum filtered correlated spectroscopy and 2-D Total Correlated Spectroscopy confirmed these results. The relative amount of PE, PC, PS, PI in the phospholipid fraction of Daphnia carinata were as follows: PC: PE: PS: PI = (47.74/2): (50.98/2): (108.46/2): (41.67) = 1: 1.06: 2.27: 1.74.

Sharma, J. G. and Chakrabarti, R. 2009. Comparative growth performance and proteolytic enzyme activity of Indian major carp Catla catla larvae, fed with live food and refrigerated-plankton food. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 79: 1185-1188

Indian major carp Catla catla (0.79±0.01 mg) larvae were cultured under 2 feeding regimes of live food (LFS) and refrigerated-plankton food (RPFS) in recirculating systems separately for 30 days. Survival of larvae was 18% higher in LFS compared to RPFS. Final average weight was significantly higher in fish fed with live food compared to the refrigerated-plankton fed fish. Specific growth rate was significantly higher in former compared to latter one. RNA/DNA of catla was nearly two-fold higher in live food fed fish compared to the refrigerated-plankton food fed fish. Food was utilized in a better way in LFS compared to RPFS is evident from the significantly lower value of FCR in the former compared to the latter system. Specific proteolytic activity was significantly higher in LFS (0.82±0.02 mg tyrosine/mg protein/h) compared to RPFS (0.457±0.01 mg tyrosine/mg protein/h). The presence of more digestive enzymes, especially proteolytic enzyme in live food fed catla resulted into the proper digestion of ingested food compared to the fish fed with refrigerated-plankton food. Prevalence of better water quality in terms of significantly lower values of ammonia, nitrite, phosphate and COD in LFS compared to the RPFS was conducive for the better performances of catla in the former feeding scheme. Reduction in nutrient contents like protein and lipid as well as leaching of essential nutrients especially free amino acids from refrigerated-plankton may be responsible for the poor performance of catla larvae in RPFS compared to LFS.

Sharma, J. G., Masuda, R., Tanaka, M. and Chakrabarti, R. 2018.The Continuous Culture of Rotifer Brachionus plicatilis with Sea Water. Madridge Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development (Madridge Publishers) 2: 35-37.

Rotifers are the favourable live food for fish larvae. A steady supply of rotifers is key factor for successful larviculture. The present study aimed to develop a simple zootechnique to reduce labour for high density culture of rotifers. Brachionus plicatilis (inoculation density: 737 ± 80 organisms/ml) were cultured in 100 l plastic, cylindrical tanks using 100% sea water. The water was renewed on every 5th day of culture without any further exchange of water in between. The culture was continued for 32 days. Rotifers were fed with Chlorella spp. at the rate of 200/ml, twice daily. Total 1059 ± 25 organisms/ml was recorded on day-1 of culture. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of rotifers was recorded on day-4 compared to day-1. A 13.12% higher density was recorded on day-8 compared to day-4; the population was reduced 5% on day-12 compared to the previous day. Then the number of rotifer increased gradually. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of rotifer (1798 ± 25/ml) was recorded on day-20 compared to the remaining culture period. A gradual decreasing trend was found thereafter. Still the number of organism was more than 1000/ml.

Chakrabarti, R., Clark, W. D., Sharma, J. G., Goswami, R. K., Shrivastav, A. K. and Tocher, D. R. 2018. Mass production of Lemna minor and its amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Frontiers in Chemistry (Frontiers) 6:479. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00479

The surface floating duckweed Lemna minor (Lemnaceae) is a potential ingredient to replace the application of fish-meal in the aqua-feed. The culture technique of the duckweed was standardized in outdoor tanks and then applied in the pond. Three consecutive experiments were conducted in tanks (1.2 × 0.35 × 0.3m). In experiment 1, four different manures were used. In manure 1 (organic manure, OM) and manure 3 (2x OM), cattle manure, poultry droppings, and mustard oil cake (1:1:1) were used; in manure 2 (inorganic fertilizer, IF), urea, potash, triple superphosphate were used; manure 4 (2x OM+IF) was a combination of manure 2 and manure 3. In experiment 2, manure 1 (OM) and manure 2 (IF) were used, and manure 3 (OM+IF) was a combination of both manures. In experiment 3, OM and IF were selected. In pond (20 × 10 × 0.5m), OM was applied. Fresh duckweed was seeded after 5 days of manure application. In experiments 1 and 3, total production was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in OM compared to other treatments. In experiment 2, there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in production between OM and IF. In pond, relative growth rate (RGR) of duckweed ranged from 0.422 to 0.073 g/g/day and total production was 702.5 Kg/ha/month (dry weight). Protein, lipid, and ash contents were higher in duckweed cultured in OM compared to IF. The duckweed was a rich source of essential (39.20%), non-essential (53.64%), and non-proteinogenic (7.13%) amino acids. Among essential amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine constituted 48.67%. Glutamic acid was 25.87% of total non-essential amino acids. Citrulline, hydroxiproline, taurine, etc. were found in the duckweed. The fatty acid composition was dominated by PUFA, 60–63% of total fatty acids, largely a-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3n-3) at around 41 to 47% and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) at 17–18%. The nutritional value of duckweeds and their production potential in the pond conditions were evaluated. Duckweed biomass may thus be used to replace commercial fish-meal that is currently used in aquaculture.

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